Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Developing Countries
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) have been a problem for doctors worldwide and governments around the globe for many years.
Pre-screening, diagnosis, and treatment programs are required to stop the spread of STDs.
A host of sexually transmitted diseases have, unfortunately, exploded in large numbers in the continent of Africa. These STD’s include the HIV virus and the HPV virus, or human papillomavirus. HPV causes cervical cancer, and the HIV virus causes AIDS (auto-immune deficiency syndrome).
It is estimated that there are 100 million cases of AIDS worldwide, and that AIDS is now claiming more lives than all wars and natural disasters around the world.
In Africa, the problem is quite tremendous.
In South Africa alone, there are 4.7 million people infected with the AIDS virus. South Africa is the world’s country with the largest infected population.
Sadly, it is estimated that worldwide, less than 1% of people infected with AIDS take drugs for their virus.
Similarly, in third world countries – including Africa – an alarming number of women die each year of cervical cancer, because they have been infected with HPV – the precursor to HPV. Every year, 80 to 90% of the people diagnosed with cervical cancer live in developing countries.
In developing countries such as America, screening and treatment prevent a large number of such cases, and prevent large numbers of deaths from HIV, HPV and cervical cancer. For example, in the United States, cervical cancer has decreased 80% in the last 40 years because of the health resources available to American women.
Unfortunately, in developing and third world countries, health and medicine resources are minimal, in the vast majority of cases.
Therefore, these cases often go undiagnosed, as there is no pre-screening and in fact, no health treatment at all.
Also, even if these third world countries do have health care facilities, they are often inadequate to detect and pre-screen for these types of viruses.
For example, in the case of cervical cancer, the best detection method is the Pap smear (or the Papanicolaou smear). However, this treatment is expensive even by American standards, and certainly economically out of reach for residents of most developing and third world countries.
The result is that, in the case of cervical cancer alone, almost 200,000 women in third world nations die of cervical cancer each year.
Some experts estimate that as many as 70 million people could die of AIDS in the next 20 years if actions are not taken to help victims of HIV and AIDS.
Evaluation and Planning of a Program
Any effective program addressing the problem of sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries must start with the problem of funding.
For example, in the cases of AIDS alone, billions of dollars will have to be spent in treating and pre-screening for the disease.
Also, proper drugs would need to be readily available to carriers of the disease.
In many cases, inexpensive alternatives to the expensive screening and treatment health solutions used in first-world countries do exist and should be utilized in programs launched in the third world.
For example, one anti-cervical cancer program currently in progress in South Africa carries “an estimated average lifetime cost of $41 per woman, and reduced the incidence of cervical cancer in the population by one-third.”
Similarly, another alternative treatment program only currently in progress costs only $39 per woman, reduces the number of cervical cancer cases by one-third, and merely involves the health care practitioner applying “vinegar to the cervix and examining it with her naked eye. Certain whitening of the tissue indicates precancerous cells.”
Therefore, when it comes to third world health care, cost-effectiveness is a crucial requirement.
Health care workers willing to work on programs dedicated to developing countries are another requirement.
Furthermore, culturally-appropriate workshops, educational-seminars, and other methods of spreading health education are needed to ensure that residents of developing countries know how to prevent, manage and treat sexually transmitted diseases.
In addition to such community education and outreach, counseling is required in regard to the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, as well as the diagnosis of diseases and methods of living with STDs.
Particularly in countries such as Africa, where viral diseases like AIDS are rampant, have taken so many lives, and have become such a tragic part of the social milieu, such counseling is an important part of the health treatment.
Evaluation Questions & Data Collection Methods
What are the possible funding sources?
How will the program be funded? If, as is mostly the case, the program will be funded with outside sources, what funding sources exist that would be amenable to this program idea?
Books listing grant funding sources would be the best source of collecting this information. Local libraries generally carry these funding texts.
What other programs already exist that address the problem?
Usually, if a social or health problem exists, there also exist at least several programs and organizations somewhere already addressing the problem in some way.
Therefore, research will need to be conducted on what programs similar to the proposed program are already in existence.
Such information can be found online and in books that compile listings and other information on Non-profit Organizations.
How is this program different than these other programs?
The proposed program will probably need to be different enough than the programs already in existence to warrant outside funding. Therefore, comparison research will need to be conducted to highlight the similarities and differences between the proposed program and the existing organizations.
Again, this information will be obtained through the listing of Non-Profit Organizations, and also by conducting more detailed research – if necessary – by contacting the individual organizations by phone.
If it is not sufficiently different than the other programs, is another such program needed?
Often, there is enough room in a field for several similar institutions. Therefore, if a problem is widespread enough or complex enough to warrant another program, the proposed program should go forward despite similarities with existing programs.
This conclusion can be reached by looking at whether the particular problem you are attempting to solve is actually getting better, for example, have the numbers of HPV cases in sub-Saharan Africa gone down in the last ten years since X, Y, and Z. organizations attempting to address the HPV problem in that geographic location began addressing the problem?
In this type of situation, however, interviews with experts in the field would probably be the better data collection method. This is known as qualitative methodology. Also, surveys with those in the industry could be conducted.
On which geographic locales will the program focus?
This can be determined by doing data research on where the health problem you are attempting to address is most severe. This might be where you want to focus your initial efforts.
Jerome Socolovsky, AIDS parley Ends on Note of Resolve, The San Diego Union Tribune, July 13, 2002, A15.
Nell Lake, Medicine by Model, Harvard Magazine, July-August 2002, 44.
See Lake, at 44.
See Socolovsky, at A10.
Nell Lake, Medicine by Model, July-August 2002, Harvard Magazine, 46.
See.American Social Health Association, http://www.asha.com/programs/ccpp.html
See also Qualitative Methods, Cornell. Edu. Located at http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/qualmeth.htm.
USDA Information Quality Guidelines for Statistical Information, located at http://www.ocio.usda.gov/irm/qi_guide/stats.html. Seealso Qualitative Methods, Cornell. Edu. Located at http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/qualmeth.htm.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more