Water Rocket Design and Lesson Plan
The water rocket is among the simplest and yet most exciting ways to simulate a ballistic reaction using safe household materials. The experiment involving the use of pressurized water within a container such as a discarded soda bottle can provide educational insight to young students beginning to learn about propulsion, compression engines, fuel usage and even about the peripheral emphases on taking safety precautions and preparing an experimental design. The Water Rocket is an excellent and engaging way to work with a modestly sized group of students in order to stimulate participation, insight, goal orientation and compliance with a set of specific instructions. The water rocket experiment could also serve as a great way to stimulate creative group activity amongst students.
The water rocket activity is particularly appealing as a way to examine aeronautics and related subjects in a school setting, mostly because of the simplicity of the design and the capacity of students to conduct research and made their own adjustments based on an evolving understanding of the principles at play. The design itself centers on the use of a few basic objects. The soda bottle is the most common object used to create the vessel itself, and will be filled with water. The nozzle of the bottle should be affixed to a narrow launch tube that fits into the nozzle and continues into the body of the bottle. The launch tube will be used to convey compressed air into the bottle so it must at its most basic be a narrow, hollow and non-porous tube through which the compressed air may pass. The compressed air can be transmitted through a variety of fairly standard and accessible means, including a basic bike pump, an air compressor or a CO2 cartridge.
The passage of the compressed air through the water will cause the air bubble to float to the top of the water mass, instigating a force of pressure that will cause the water to be rapidly ejected from the nozzle once it has been released from the launching tube. Once this reaction has occurred and release has been manually instigated, “the rockets made from these bottles are surprisingly powerful. A standard 2-liter pop bottle 1/3 full of water, pumped to 80 psi and then released, will eject all its water in less than one-tenth of a second, and at that point (“burnout”) will be only about 2 meters off the ground. Amazingly, its velocity at burnout is around 76 meters per second. That’s over 170 miles per hour.” (Johnson, 1)
As per the design of the rocket though, there are a great many steps which the designer can take that will alter the relationship between these various measures. Adaptation to the structure of the rocket can redistribute the emphasis of its flight on distance, duration, speed, trajectory and a host of other variations that render the experiment extremely flexible and open to variable experimentation. As the literature describes on the subject, the use of fins is a common practice which helps to control the flight pattern and produce a more predictable trajectory. Applying a weighted object to the nose of the rocket is also a commonly used technique for improving the stability of the object as it loses the weight provided by the water. The expulsion of this fuel will not only power the rocket in its flight, but will also impinge upon the stability of the bottle as it becomes lighter and more susceptible to interference by the elements. Other common adjustments include the affixing of objects to retain the sturdiness of the structure. According to Johnson (1998), a water rocket constructed optimally can reach up to 300 vertical feet. This is a remarkable distance that can, of course, expose the rocket to damage upon its return to the earth. Thus, other design elements which may be taken into consideration may include rubber bumpers and crumple zones, which can help to lengthen the life of the rocket and make it suitable for repeat launches.
The launch test is the pinnacle of the work conducted by students. Here, the different groups that have designed rockets will test their designs by using the same launch apparatus provided by the teacher. Therefore, it will be the teacher’s responsibility to streamline the use of a standard bike pump and the erection of a launch tube, ensuring that this common denominator does not impact differently any group’s experimental design.
Using a wide open space such as a soccer field which is not in the direct proximity of any structures or populated areas, groups could affix their respective design to the launch tube and retain it by tethering it to a length of twine. The student selected as the launch captain for each group would stand at a distance of at least 20 feet with the free end of the string at hand while another student from the group, selected as Ground Control, would activate the bike pump. Upon the point at which the compressed air reaches the top of the water bottle and pressure begins to build, the launch captain would release the string, providing freedom for the launch. Launches will be evaluated according to an array of different flight characteristics such as duration, height, stability and perceived velocity.
The lesson plan surrounding this experimental approach is accessible to most demographics, most particularly given that there are few price-based limitations. The materials required cost little money and are accessible to most households. The only limitation will concern the age of students participating. Generally speaking, there are safety considerations that are inherent to this process and these denote that students under the age of 9 or 10 are likely to be too young. This means that grade 5 is likely to be earliest age at which the safety considerations will allow participation. The examination of several key scientific principles such as Newton’s Third Law of Motion*, indicates that the experiment is probably most constructive for those in middle school or early high school who are just becoming familiar with these concepts.
The materials required for each group are a two liter soda bottle and materials such as rubber, foam and non-corrosive glue for design variation. The teacher should provide an air pump and launching tube. This denotes the objective for the students to learn concepts of aeronautics and fuel compression while also examining the concepts of experimental design and variable control. The procedure would instigate the latter outcome by pitting groups against one another and asking each group to project its flight expectations based on specific design conditions. Success of each launch would be gauged on its fulfillment of these expectations. Parallels or deviations from these expectations would be subject to student assessment for identification of the factors that caused failure or success.
For the instructor, the success of the program would be self-evident. Students tend almost universally to enjoy participation in such projects, with the launch day marking an exciting and fun alternative to traditional classroom time. The goals of the project and the evaluation of these goals can vary based on the age and ability of the student body. As a source provided by NASA indicates, “middle grade students can manipulate and control variables, see their hypotheses verified or refuted, and graph their findings. High school students experience the nature of science at its best. They can document their abilities with the following concepts: inertia, gravity, air resistance, Newton’s laws of motion, acceleration, relationships between work and energy or impulse and momentum, projectile motion, freefall calculations, internal and external ballistics, and the practice of true engineering.” (Mazza, 1) This is a lesson plan where evaluation will be based on participation and engagement of experimental principles rather than the effectiveness of the actual launch.
* “Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. That is whenever a first body exerts a force F. On a second body, the second body exerts a force ?F on the first body. F and ?F are equal in size and opposite in direction.” (Wikipedia1, 1)
Johnson, D. (1998). Water Rocket Annex. Dog Rockets. Online at http://dogrocket.home.mindspring.com/WaterRockets/index.html
Mazza, D. (2005). All About Water Rockets. NASA. Online at http://exploration.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/BottleRocket/about.htm
Wikipedia. (2009). Water Rocket. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
Wikipedia1. (2009). Newton’s Laws of Motion. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more