Vital and traditional part of Zuni culture thesis

solstice ceremonies of are a vital and traditional part of Zuni culture. The ceremonies occur in both summer and winter solstices, but the most important ceremony occurs during the winter solstice. The ancestors of the Zuni people lived in what is now the southwestern U.S. over 5,000 years ago, and today their decedents continue to celebrate the winter solstice.

The roots of the Zuni culture, and thus the solstice, lie within the Anasazi culture that existed millennia ago in what is today the southwest United States. The Anasazi people, believed to be the ancestors of the Zuni and other Pueblo people simply disappeared 600 years ago, leaving behind their homes and belongings after inhabiting the area for close to 5,000 years (Roberts).

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Vital and traditional part of Zuni culture thesis
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

The Zuni New Year begins at the winter solstice. The ceremony called Yatakya-ittiwanna-quin-techikya (“sun middle-at place arrives”), or Tetsina-wittiwa (“winter middle”) marks the beginning of these celebrations. The Peqinne, chief of the zenith observes the movements of the sun daily. When the sun coincides with a specific mark on the mountain Tawayalanne, he tells the ‘bow chiefs’ and the war chiefs who in turn tell the other five high priests, who assemble in the house of the Kyaqimassi, Shiwanni of the north (The Curtis Collection).

The days leading up to the solstice are marked by a number of activities that include many members of the tribe. Feathered prayer sticks are placed at a shrine on the mountain Tawayalanne for a period of twenty one days. On the twenty-second morning, Peqinne chief of the zenith goes to the mountaintop and announces that the tenth day after that day the sun will arrive at a specific spot on mountain Tawayalanne. At that time, he also announces that the tribe will celebrate the sun’s arrival and four day appearance before he head south (The Curtis Collection).

For four days before the solstice, fraternities, individuals, and priesthoods make more prayer sticks. Men of specific clans make an image of the younger war god. On the afternoon of the day before the solstice an appointed man prepares a fire as the sun sets. The images of the war gods are brought to the kiva, and a night of prayers and offerings ensues (The Curtis Collection).

On the day of the solstice, each household plants prayer sticks in the fields. These are intended for specific ancestors and deities. No fire is allowed outside the houses for ten days (The Curtis Collection).

Today, the ancient Zuni traditions of celebrating the winter solstice remain alive. In modern New Mexico, the Zuni reservation makes up 640 square miles, and still celebrates Shalako, part of the 48-day-long winter solstice ceremony (Hoxie). At Zuni Pueblo, the sun priest sets the date of the winter solstice festival (Roberts). The most important holiday of the year for modern Zuni in western New Mexico remains the winter solstice festival of Shalako. Tribal paintings that include those depicting the winter solstice festival are being painstakingly repainted (Keith).

In conclusion, the Zuni celebration of the winter solstice is an enduring testament to the spirituality of the Zuni people. The Zuni ancestors once lived in the southwestern United States over 5,000 years ago, only to disappear about 600 years ago. Today’s Zuni likely carry within their culture some remnants of this ancient civilization, and in their modern recreations of the winter solstice ceremonies they enact traditions that may be thousands of years old. As such, the Zuni celebrations of the winter and summer solstice provide a fascinating glimpse of ancient American Indian culture.

Works Cited

Database Article

Keith, Katherine Drouin. Zuni murals connect two cultures. (Zuni kachinas in Catholic mission). National Catholic Reporter, March 26, 1999. LookSmart Database. 21 March 2004.

Internet Resource

The Curtis Collection. Zuni Solstice and Harvest Ceremonies. The North American Indian, Volume 17. 21 March 2004.


Roberts, David. 1997. In Search of the Old Ones. Touchstone Books.

Specialized Encyclopedia

Hoxie, Frederick E. editor. 1996. Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, New York.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  ++1 718 717 2861         [email protected]