The Ancient Athenian Citizen Oath (Bartleby.com) clearly lays out the responsibility of citizens and government; but since the people made up the government — and the government reflected citizens’ values — the future was respected on a formal basis. The job of government then was to preserve the country and the society for future generations. The Oath argues that signatories promise to fight for things both sacred and profane, indicating that there was freedom of expression in that era. The statement “I will transmit my fatherland not diminished,” means that after taking the oath the person will be a good steward to the land and the society and make sure it is preserved for future generations. The Oath asks signatories to honor and obey those “magistrates” but only those who rule “reasonably.”
How did the theories of Burke, Locke, and Hume relate to how government would deal with future generations? Burke believed that it was government’s duty to give “unremitted attention” to the constituents (the people). Government should listen to the people’s opinions, respect their interests (and to “prefer their interest to his own”). But on the other hand, Burke argued, the political leader should hold fast to his “pleasuresâ€¦satisfactions,” his “opinions” and his “mature judgment” as well as his “enlightened conscience” (Bohn, 1854). The elected leader does not “derive from your pleasure; no, nor from the law and the constitution” but rather the leader ultimately answers to no one; instead, he receives his “trust from Providence,” Bohn presents, quoting in his book the Works of Right Honourable Edmund Burke. In other words, Burke was skeptical about democracy, believing that demagogic forces could easily arouse ordinary citizens’ passions if they actually had the right to vote. He had little faith him ordinary citizen and had his trust in government, hence government was responsible for maintaining itself.
David Hume, meantime, in his essay “That Politics May Be Reduced to a Science,” argues that the same government under one leader may institute policies of “oppression, levity, artifice” and his subjects may engage in “treachery, rebellion” and disloyalty” while an entirely different leader under the same governmental structure a “patriot and heroic prince” can come in and the society will be “totally changed” (Founder’s Constitution). In other words governments can be “the source of all disorder and of the blackest of crimes” or they can act for the public good. Bottom line: governments can’t be trusted to be consistently useful and helpful.
For John Locke, government “â€¦should be limited to securing the life and property of it citizens”; and government should allow freedom of religion and freedom of conscience. He was opposed to “hereditary monarchy” and supported human rights (especially in his more mature years).
As to how these political theories connect with environmental policy in the U.S.: first, the environmental policies in the U.S. are under attack by the Republicans in the House of Representatives. Their recent bill, H.R. 1, passed in February 2011, contained 19 anti-environmental riders that would “negatively affect air, water, and environmental quality,” the Sustainable Energy & Environmental Coalition explained. The right wing in Congress wants to take power away from the Environmental Protection Agency as well. Hume would likely approve of the Tea Party and GOP as to their disavowal of global climate change; he would agree that the U.S. federal government is too big and powerful. Those who took the Athenian Ephebic Oath would object vigorously to the GOP attempt to dismantle laws that protect the environment. Locke would (in his later years) would be intolerant of those who “threaten or undermine government through their intoleranceâ€¦” (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Edmund Burke would be conflicted; he didn’t trust the masses (in this case he wouldn’t trust the agitating Tea Party types), but on the other hand he believed those in government know best what should be done. The fact is that Republicans generally think government has gone too far in regulating the air, water, land, and Republicans do not accept the facts of climate change, so in this country right now there is no widely accepted environmental policy albeit the Obama Administration is working hard to convince the nation to adopt a clean energy economy and to do what is necessary to reduce carbon releases into the atmosphere.
Bartleby.com. (2009). Athenian Ephebic Oath. Retrieved April 5, 2011, from http://www.bartleby.com/73/100.html.
Bohn, Henry G. (1854). The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke. Volume I (London:
Henry G. Bohn), pp. 446-8.
Hume, David. (2007). David Hume, That Politics May Be Reduced to a Science. The Founders
Constitution / Balanced Government / Chapter 11. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch11s3.html.
Locke, John. (2008). Political Philosophy of John Locke. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Retrieved April 5, 2011, from http://www.lep.utm.edu/locke-po/.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more