How prejudice and discrimination manifests

Understanding a form of prejudice and discrimination in a black community

Explain how prejudice and discrimination manifests in this community

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
How prejudice and discrimination manifests
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Research on health and race often invoke discrimination, prejudice, and racism as probable causes for increased levels of mortality and morbidity in the black community. Discrimination and prejudice can impact people’s social resources, opportunities, motivation, self-worth, and involvement with the wider society. Besides, the different views on inequality and equality serve as drivers for further prejudice. Therefore, the establishment, promotion, and sustenance of human rights and equality are dependent on understanding how individuals comprehend and apply these ideas in their daily lives (Abrams, 2010).

Early sociological accounts regarding black’s higher offending rates focused not on the physical constraints created by racial prejudice but instead on the supposed unique facets of their culture that disrupts conventional behavior while encouraging violence and crime. A few recent structural perceptions openly incorporate racial, physical constraints, including institutional prejudice, yet the core mechanism clarifying acts of offense among blacks in these explanations remains dysfunctional or deviant adaptations of their culture (Burt, Simons & Gibbons, 2012).

In general, blacks report widespread encounters of racial prejudice across several circumstances. Concerning institutional discrimination, 50% or more of African Americans mention that they have experienced discrimination just because of their skin complexion when dealing with the police (50 percent) when making job applications (56 percent), and when being paid or being considered for a job promotion (57 percent) (NPR, RWJF & HTCSPH, 2017). Also, 60 percent of blacks mention that they or one of their family members has been treated or stopped unfairly by the police, and 45 percent mention that the court system has unfairly treated them because they are African Americans. Blacks residing in suburban regions are more likely to report unfair stopping or treatment by the police than those living in urban areas (NPR, RWJF & HTCSPH, 2017).

Blacks residing in predominantly black neighborhoods are more likely to encounter discrimination than those living in non-majority black neighborhoods. Generally, 92 percent of blacks believe that discrimination against blacks exists in the United States (NPR, RWJF & HTCSPH, 2017). About 50 percent of these mention that discrimination based on prejudgment of individuals is the main problem, compared to 25 percent who mention that the main issue is simply discrimination based on governmental policies and laws. Another 25 percent mention that both are similarly problematic NPR, RWJF & HTCSPH, 2017).

Discrimination and prejudice against African Americans living in America are considered to be products of slavery. These beliefs sprouted from white racists’ negative attitudes and were exerted via discrimination and tyrannical actions that portrayed how slaves should behave and think (Taylor, Guy-Walls, Wilkerson, & Addae, 2019). Many white slave owners came up with beliefs to explain their political, economic, and social dominations. Owning black slaves was a symbol of higher class amidst the white racists who felt the need to apply violence to suppress slave resistance via abusive treatment. These dehumanized slaves downgraded their roles and even restricted their activities and movement to those seen as valuable to their masters. Social control constraints determined both familial and individual relationships as well as behavioral activity portrayed by slaves. For instance, slaves were expected to denounce their cultural beliefs and instead conform to their master’s expectations (Taylor, Guy-Walls, Wilkerson, & Addae, 2019).

The science behind prejudice and discrimination and its psychological impacts

Several surveys have asked blacks and other racial minorities regarding their encounters with discrimination at their workplace and other day-to-day social settings. One surprising conclusion from this study is the incidence with which racial discrimination is mentioned. Racial discrimination, together with its psychological correlations, has gained great attention over the last twenty years. Backed by theoretical models of racism-linked stress, findings generally reveal that perceptions of racial discrimination are inversely related to an individual’s psychological well-being yet positively linked with psychological psychological distress (Pieterse, Todd, Neville, & Carter, 2011).

As per the general strain theory, racism causes distress, which increases the chances of committing a crime. Two different studies indicate that emotional distress partly explains the impacts of racism on violence and conduct issues. Even though the general strain theory stresses the role of anger as a mediator, it also suggests that other adverse emotions also play a mediation role. In this particular study, we evaluate depression’s mediating role, resulting in crime in different ways (Burt, Simons & Gibbons, 2012).

According to a recent review, discrimination is positively linked with the measures of anxiety and depression symptoms, psychological distress, and psychiatric disorders (Lewis, Cogburn, and Williams 2015). As per thorough qualitative interviews, studies conclude that racism cases are of great importance to mental health since exclusion encounters arouse feelings of ‘self-defilement’ (Fleming, Lamont & Welburn, 2012). Other included feelings are being ignored, over-scrutinized, misunderstood, disrespected, and underappreciated. More importantly, racism encounters breach cultural beliefs like fairness, dignity, and mortality. According to Pearlin and colleagues (2005), stressors related to race might be pathogenic, given that they can be viewed as a direct attack on the identity of an individual.

Several recent research has revealed that continuous exposure to racial discrimination has widespread negative impacts on blacks’ general health, including increased stress. Stress is displayed in different ways, and its consequences on the well-being of African American people are potentially permanent. African American men normally experience higher anxiety, guilt, hostility, and depression than African American women. This could be linked to the belief that African American women have a higher potential for challenging discrimination and bias than their male counterparts (College Board Advocacy and Policy Center, 2010, p. 19). Despite the higher potential for challenging discrimination and bias, black women also face another type of discrimination called sexism. As a result of their exposure to this double threat, stress for sure plays a significant role in black females’ lives (Lawson, 2016).

Latest studies show that systemic racial discrimination destroys black mental well-being. For instance, Schulz et al. (2006, p. 1267) discovered that perceived racism leads to poorer health outcomes over time. In 2001, the United States’ Health and Human Services Department reported that 17 percent of blacks suffer from mental depressive conditions, and 21 percent suffer from mental anxiety disorders. Even though it is apparent that issues of mental health do reside among black communities and that the resources needed in their management is not always there, additional studies need to be done to establish if discrimination and racism are mainly to blame for these matters (Peters, 2006, p. 235).

Type of training, resources, and protocols can be used to help the community

Studies reveal that even though exposure to racism raises the likelihood of anxiety and depression, there is some variability within blacks about how they function as a response to discrimination. Little research has evaluated how racism might affect patterns of coping, and results have not been consistent. Some studies, for instance, imply that racism envisages more evasion strategies than support-seeking and problem-solving. Besides, black grownups cope with racism differently than they cope with other general stressors. Particularly, when compared to general stress, stress linked to exposure to racism envisages less emotion-focused and problem-focused coping behaviors (Abrams, 2010). These outcomes imply that racism might limit the options of coping available for racism encounters. Another outlook is that racism stress might require blacks to draw on various coping strategies, including coping strategies that are culturally relevant (Gaylord-Harden, 2009).

Learning about black culture takes place naturally at home via unspoken socialization. Nevertheless, amid most African American parents and guardians, cultural socialization is a conscious activity that includes particular ethnic teachings. By making the black culture noticeable and offering information regarding cultural practices and the different achievements of black people, parents cultivate knowledge and pride in the cultural values and traditions of blacks. Such practices undermine racial identities among black adolescents, which are linked to positive psychological and mental health. Also, cultural socialization is directly related to blacks’ more positive views, higher self-worth, and higher academic success. Also, studies reveal that cultural socialization is inversely linked to various externalizing conducts (for example, reduced fighting and better management of anger, particularly boys) as well as internalizing issues (like reduced psychological distress, anxiety, and depression) (Burt, Simons, & Gibbons, 2012).

Present findings greatly back the need for evaluating these racial discrimination coping phenomenon from a bio-psychosocial point of view. This would provide health practitioners with the information needed to treat those affected with cultural stress from an all-inclusive outlook and could be incorporated as part of both physical and mental health care (Griffin & Armstead, 2020).

Different coping strategies are utilized in different situations. In other words, African Americans cope with different racist situations in different ways. The ever-present need for African Americans to have an appropriate way to deal with racist incidents makes racism a chronic stressor. Many studies have been carried out to assess the coping strategies African Americans utilize generally. The most common strategies include: relying on religious rituals, relying on community support, relying on family, belief in achievement and responsibility, belief in hard work, and developing a strong defense shield. Studies have also found that African Americans sometimes do not utilize coping strategies when exposed to racist situations because of the community’s limited coping strategies. This is because there are different forms of racism, and racism itself is intangible and insidious, making it difficult to utilize active coping measures such as problem-solving (Lawson, 2016).

Education Attainment and Coping Strategies

Education is perceived as the path to success. This is because it promises better jobs, better pay, better housing, and increase comfort. Education also affects mental health. A recent study found that the more educated individuals are, the higher their well-being levels. In a graded linear relationship, the study revealed that every group of individuals in an education level had better mental well-being than the one below them. As per this study, when education is taken into account, racial differences in mental health and well-being are reduced by 20% (Williams, 1997, p. 344). Additionally, this study also reported reduced distress with an increase in pay/income. However, this study also reported increased distress within high-population households (Williams, 1997, p. 345).


Abrams, D. (2010). Process of Prejudice: Theory, evidence, and intervention. Equality and Human Rights Commission Research Report.

Burt, C. H., Simons, R., & Gibbons, F. (2012). Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-sociological Model of Risk and Resilience. Am Sociol Rev., 648–677.

College Board Advocacy and Policy Center. (2010). The Education Crisis Facing Young Men of Color (Vol. 1, pp. 1-42, Rep.). College Board

Fleming C, Lamont M, and Welburn J. (2012). “African Americans Respond to Stigmatization: The Meanings and Salience of Confronting, Deflecting Conflict, Educating the Ignorant and ‘Managing the Self.'” Ethnic and Racial Studies 35(3):400–17.

Gaylord-Harden, N. K. (2009). The Impact of Racial Discrimination and Coping Strategies on Internalizing Symptoms in African American Youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 532-43.

Griffin, E., & Armstead, C. (2020). Black’s Coping Responses to Racial Stress. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 609–618.

Lawson, C. (2016). Racism and Coping Mechanisms within the African American Community. UFDC.

NPR, R. H. (2017). Discrimination in America: Experiencing and views of African Americans.

Pearlin L, Schieman S, Fazio E, and Meersman S., (2005). “Stress, Health, and the Life Course: Some Conceptual Perspectives.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 46(June):205–19.

Peters, R. M. (2006). The Relationship of Racism, Chronic Stress Emotions, and Blood Pressure. Journal of Nursing Scholarship J Nursing Scholarship, 38(3), 234-240. Retrieved January 12, 2016

Pieterse, A., Todd, N., Neville, H., & Carter, R. (2011). Perceived Racism and Mental Health Among Black American Adults: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Counseling Psychology.

Schulz, A. J., Gravlee, C. C., Williams, D. R., Israel, B. A., Mentz, G., & Rowe, Z. (2006). Discrimination, Symptoms of Depression, and Self-Rated Health Among African American Women in Detroit: Results From a Longitudinal Analysis. Am J Public Health American Journal of Public Health, 96(7), 1265-1270

Taylor, E., Guy-Walls, P., Wilkerson, P., & Addae, R. (2019). The Historical Perspectives of Stereotypes on African-American Males. Journal of Human Rights and Social Work.

Williams, D. R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J. S., & Anderson, N. B. (1997). Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socio-economic Status, Stress, and Discrimination. Journal of Health Psychology, 2(3), 335-351. Retrieved January 7, 2016.



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  ++1 718 717 2861         [email protected]