Graduation Rates among Football Athlete Students

NCAA Division I College Male Football and Basketball Players Receiving Financial Compensation for Playing in Games

Much controversy and disagreement surrounds pay for play for football and basketball players in the NCAA Division I of college sports. And while it does at first thought appear to be something that would not be in the opinion of most intelligent individuals to be what would be called ‘best practice’ upon conduction of research one finds that there are very good reasons for college players to receive pay for play. One reason is based on the fact that, these players, unlike other scholarship players do not have time for part-time jobs due to the stringent demands placed upon them in relation to training and practice and not to even mention academic requirements. Also stated is that many times there is a gap between the scholarship provisions and the cost of school. The questions which arise when conducting research of what do the young men from low-income families do for their spending money and how do those who are not eligible for loans pay for the costs that are not covered in the scholarship provisions? The argument from both sides of this debate have valid points for consideration and there are several ways of looking at or perceiving this topic. This work in research attempts to present each side of the debate as to whether college student-athletes in the NCAA Division I should be entitled to receive pay for play.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Graduation Rates among Football Athlete Students
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay


There is plenty of evidence available to support college student athletes receiving pay or compensation due to the many hours that they are tied up with training, practice, review of games, and the actual playing of college sports however, just as many valid arguments it seems exist are the basis or reason that these college student-athletes should not receive compensation including the complications that would inherently exist when Title IX is considered. The monies are readily available to provide these college student-athletes with some type of compensation if nothing other than filling in the gap between scholarship provisions and the actual costs of attending college and it is certain that the NCAA must critically address some of these financial problems that exist for the college student-athletes and it is just as certain that with a 300% increase in revenue over the past decade that the colleges have the means to assist these young college student-athletes. The debate is an intense one and supported on both sides with rational and cognitive thinking concerning the issue and yet, the issue remains unsolved.


NCAA – National College Association of Athletes

Title IX – Legislation that forbids discrimination in college sports based on the gender of a player.

Pay-for-Play- Compensation paid to a college student-athlete for playing college sports.

NFL – National Football League


The scope of this study encompasses a review of all available literature containing facts relating to this study that has been published in newspapers (both online and offline) journal articles, special reports, sports reports and any literature that is from a valid and respected source which relates to the debate of whether NCAA college student-athletes should receive ‘pay-for-play’ or compensation for playing college sports.


This study is limited only in that there may be literature not readily available for the review of the researcher due to limitations of time and limitations in access to certain information or publications at this time unknown to the researcher.


All Division I colleges have the money to pay Division I football and Basketball players if they budget properly and cut programs.


All information reviewed in this study is from reliable sources and it is the actual belief of the researcher in this study that college student-athletes should receive compensation for playing college sports due to the demands upon the athletes in terms of the expenditure of time required.


Studies previously conducted in this area that examine the revenue of NCAA colleges suggest that there is more than enough money to pay the Division I football and basketball players.




The methodology of this research is one of a qualitative nature. Qualitative research is investigative and interpretive research and is considered a valid form of research for a study that seeks to examine social phenomena such as is illustrated in the debate surrounding ‘pay-for-play’ for college student-athletes.


Over the past few years the issue of compensation or ‘pay-for-play’ has generated quite a debate and yet with no solution. It is believed that this study will add to previous research conducted in this subject area.


The instrument used in this research initiative is that of a review of literature. The research was conducted through the search engine ‘Google’ and with the search terms inclusive of the following phrases:



College student-athletes

NCAA Division I


Many of the college student-athletes attending colleges across the country and participating in sports are attending college on scholarships that do not completely pay for the costs in attending the college. The college student-athlete, if allowed to do so, does not have the time available to work even part-time in combination with their academic requirements and athletic demands. Some believe that college student-athletes should receive compensation or ‘pay-for-play’ while other vehemently believe that these college student-athletes should not receive any compensation whatsoever for the time expended practicing, training, and playing college sports.




The work of Carolton Weatherby and Macharia Edmonds entitled: “Student Athletes: America’s Unpaid WorkForce” states that: “For the student athlete in America, life in college is not easy at all. As a matter of fact, referring to the life of a collegiate student-athlete as difficult would be an absolute understatement. In addition to the everyday struggles of the average student, whom does not represent their university in intercollegiate athletics, the student-athlete must fulfill a major commitment to the sports team he or she represents for the good of the institution. With the constant academic commitment to lectures, sections, papers, problem sets, office hours, programs midterms, finals, and other strenuous curricular responsibilities expected of today’s standard college students, the student-athlete engages in additional arduous athletic obligations such as training, traveling, meeting, practicing and playing with their respected teams. This coupled commitment makes the life of a student-athlete very stressful, tiring and sometimes impossible to the point where you must pick one or the other. ” (nd) This work goes on to relate the fact that the sport is equivalent to a full-time job for these athletes who spend countless hours in training instead of doing what other college students do in their free time. Many times these athletes are not free to spend holidays at home due to games or tournaments that are scheduled closely around the holidays. Weatherby and Edmonds state that “…there is no question that more time is spent on the field or court than in the classroom. Studies have estimated that student-athletes in the revenue-generating sports of college athletics spend approximately forty hours per week in preparation for their respective sports, which is an incredible amount of time towards work considering that simultaneously a great deal of time is required for attending class and class preparation. In truth, athletics have a clear dominance of priority over academics in the life of the student-athlete. A student must make sincere effort and take the initiative toward finding time available for academics.” (nd) Weatherby and Edmonds severely question the policy of colleges in not paying their college athletes by stating that “…it is pretty commonly accepted that the U.S. is a capitalistic society. Many people argue every day for getting ‘their fair share’ or ‘what they deserve’ through their labor.” (nd) Therefore the work of Weatherby and Edmonds examine is the “revenues of the college athletics departments and compare those to the amount of financial aid athletes receive” (nd) The following chart labeled Figure 1 in this study shows the Men’s program revenues in Football and Basketball as cited by Weatherby and Edmonds (nd).

Revenues by Athletics Program Division I-A

Fiscal Years 1989, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001

Dollars in Thousands)

Source: Weatherby & Edmonds (nd)

As seen in the above chart the sports of football and basketball generate large revenues and have almost tripled their revenues between the years of 1989 and 2001. The following chart labeled Figure 2 illustrates the ‘largest reported revenues by sport’ in Division I — A for football and men’s basketball.

Largest Reported Revenues by Sport

Division I-A

Dollars in Thousands)

Weatherby & Edmonds (nd)

The foregoing chart illustrates the fact that “top programs are able to generate extremely large revenues each year and again, the revenues are getting bigger.” (Weatherby & Edmonds, nd) Weatherby & Edmonds (nd) One argument consistently made by individuals that are against paying student-athletes is that the student-athlete receives a free education so in effect they are receiving something for their services. But examining graduation rats of some universities does not support this statement at all. The following is a list with an accompanying chart showing the graduation rates from several universities across the United States basketball teams.

School Basketball Percentage Graduated

Stanford University 100%

UCLA 36%

University of South California 36%

University of Oregon 33%

Washington State University 33%

Arizona State University 33%

Oregon State University 23%

University of Washington 22%

University of Arizona 15%

University of California-Berkley 15% (Weatherby & Edmonds, nd)

Graduation Rates among Basketball Athlete Students

Chapter 4: Measuring Results – 4%

Weatherby & Edmonds (nd)

Source: Weatherby & Edmonds (nd)

The rates for athlete-students football players graduation rates do not look much better as the following list and accompanying chart will illustrate.

School Football Percentage Graduated

Stanford University 82%

University of Oregon 68%

University of Southern California 65%

University of Arizona 61%

UCLA 61%

University of Washington 60%

Washington State University 54%

University of California-Berkeley 49%

Arizona State University 44%

Oregon State University 35% (Weatherby & Edmonds, nd)

Graduation Rates among Football Athlete Students

Source: Weatherby & Edmonds (nd)

Examination of the foregoing statistics does not present a basis upon which to support the argument that states that college athletes receive a free education because many of them in the long run are not in actuality receiving an education. (Weatherby & Edmonds, nd; paraphrased) The Journal of the Business Law Society published an article on March 23, 2005 entitled: “Pay to Play: Should College Athletes Be Paid?” attempts an answer to this dilemma and states that: “The reality is that college sports programs, namely the “big name” programs such as football and basketball programs at marquee schools, are businesses that stand to make a large amount of money for their respective schools.” (2005)

According to an article in the Harvard Journal on Legislation, “[i]n the past twelve years, the amount of money generated by these two sports has increased nearly 300%, such that they now fund almost all other sports programs. 41 Harv. J. On Legis. 319. The student-athletes who participate in these programs are part of the reason why these schools stand to make such handsome profits: through ticket sales, endorsement deals, broadcasting deals, and jersey sales (although player names cannot be represented on jerseys), among other things.” (The Journal of the Business Law Society, 2005)

Again the arguments arise that student athletes are receiving scholarships however this journal article states that the truth is that “full scholarships do not always entirely cover tuition and the cost of living. However, these students can still do what a majority of students do, which is to get loans. Still some of these student-athletes do not qualify for such loans, so there is still a gap between the money they get and the total cost of attendance. This gap, coupled with the fact that football and basketball players help generate so much revenue, has caused some intercollegiate teams to provide their athletes with extra compensation, which is in direct violation of NCAA bylaws. 41 Harv. J. On Legis. 319. ” (Ibid) However, there are substantial arguments existing against paying student-athletes which of course include the Title IX issue which would cause all kinds of complications specifically if male athletes were paid more than female athletes. Other arguments pointed out by The Journal of the Business Law Society (2005) are the “significant gap in talent” that would result between the rich and poor schools as well as the lessening of competition which would effectively lessen the attendance at games and the resulting revenue as well.

The main problem states The Journal of the Business Law Society is “that it is not the college’s primary function. The primary function of academic institutions is to educate, and not to hire student-athletes for their contributions.” (2005) Stated as well is the inequity it would cause in the long-run for the athletes themselves as they were unduly influenced for a college and against another due to financial matters. The journal article does relate that even though there are strong arguments against paying student-athletes still “there are certain problems with the current NCAA system which can and should be cured. The gap between a full scholarship and the cost of attendance should be covered by the academic institution, especially when the student athlete does not qualify for a loan.” (Ibid) This would ensure that students don’t leave college with an unfinished education to play professional sports. (The Journal of the Business Law Society, 2005)

USA Today Sports in the article entitled: “Pros, Cons on Pay for Play” states the following points as to “Why Pay for Play is Good” Players are entitled to some compensation because of the revenue they bring in and the risk of injury they face.

Athletes from poor backgrounds cannot rely on their families for money, and because of the demand of the sport, they have no time for jobs.

The money that football and men’s basketball programs make should go back to those athletes rather than pay for the other sports at school.

Paying athletes might help stem the tide of those going pro-early.

Paying athletes could curb abuses such as players taking money from boosters or agents. (USA Today Sports, 2004)

Listed under ‘what they say’ is “They are unpaid workers, and in big-time college athletics, not just football, there are no amateurs. Whenever you get something of value for performing athletically, you’re a professional. They call it a scholarship, fees, books, tuition and so forth. What I want is the athlete to have some spendable money.” (Nebraska, Senator Ernie Chambers, a longtime supporter of providing stipends to college athletes, who submitted a bill 2003 that would allow football players at Nebraska to be paid a stipend)

Sometimes it just doesn’t seem fair. I’m at the No. 1 football school in the country right now, and I’m struggling to get groceries every month.” (Oklahoma center Vince Carter before his football played LSU in the BCS national championship) (USA Today Sports, 2004)

Listed as reasons why pay for play won’t work are those as follows:

Paying only men’s basketball and football players would be challenged in court. Title IX suits would be filed because female athletes wouldn’t get similar funds.

Where would the money come from? Most athletic departments do not make a profit.

Non-revenue sports would have to be cut because there wouldn’t be sufficient funds.(USA Today Sports, 2004)

The work entitled: “Despite NCAA Concessions, Pay for Play is Wrong Way” states that college football “is not a minor league for the NFL, and it’s not a place for athletes to make money playing a game. College football is passion and pageantry and everything the NFL is not.” Stated further is that while the athletic budget for the University of Florida is $44 million for the 2000-2001-year there will only be a surplus of $400,000 and the majority of that will be used for “repaving the track.” (Hayes, The Sporting News, 2001)




It is the opinion of this researcher that college student-athletes should receive pay or at the very least some type of compensation for the time expended in practicing, training, and playing college sports. The reason this is believed is because of the gap that exist in scholarships and the actual costs of attending college and the fact that there is not time whatsoever available in the schedule of these students to work even part-time and most colleges do not allow their student-athletes to work due to the conflict that is incurred insofar as practice, training and game schedules.


It is the belief of the research that substantial evidence has been offered as proof that the college student-athlete deserves compensation of some form for the time expended related to playing college sports on the part of the student-athlete.


The researcher holds that future studies in this area are critical if a reasonable and satisfactory method of compensating college student-athletes is to be established.


Cody, Jason (1997) Getting Paid To Play – Cyburr Online Available at http://Burr.Kent.Edu/Archives/1997/Fall/Ncaa.html

Recent Developments Payment For College Football Players In Nebraska (2002) Online available at http://Www.Law.Harvard.Edu/Students/Orgs/Jol/Vol41_1/Skidmore.Php

Lopiano, Donna (2004)Football Doesn’t Need Title IX Protection Wed” Online available at; Http://Www.Womensportsfoundation.Org/Cgi-Bin/Iowa/Issues/Rights/Article.Html?Record=131

Pay To Play: Should College Athletes Be Paid? (2005) The Journal Of The Business Law Society Online Available at http://Iblsjournal.Typepad.Com/Illinois_Business_Law_Soc/2005/03/Does_It_ Make_Se.html

Pros, Cons On Pay For Play (2004) USA Today Sports Online available at http://Www.Usatoday.Com/Sports/2004-08-31-Pros-Cons-Pay_X.htm

Hayes, Matt (2001) Despite NCAA Concessions -Pay For Play Is Wrong Way – The Sporting News. May 14, 2001. Online Available at http://Www.Findarticles.Com/P/Articles/Mi_M1208/Is_20_225/Ai_74800763

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  ++1 718 717 2861         [email protected]