Public Policy Analysis
The definitions of some terms, such as torture, are not clearly defined in law. Whether it is torture or not depends on the initial objective, not the actual actions. After the rules for interrogation were set, they were changed several times to implement more actions as being allowed for interrogation. Without terms being clearly defined, it opens the door for confusion and misconceptions as to the meanings of the terms and what is allowed and what is not allowed, or prohibited, by law. Policies can be changed based on simple misconceptions that can make situations worse instead of bringing improvement.
Chronology of Facts
Numerous reports indicated slapping, kicking, beating, stripping of clothes, hands and feet chaining, dark cells, and extreme temperatures, among other actions. There were numerous reports that proved the abuse to the detainees did happen.
Detainees were falsely imprisoned. Military intelligence officers admitted that 70% – 90% of the detainees had been imprisoned by mistake.
An Executive Order, signed by President Bush, authorized interrogation techniques of sleep management, use of military working dogs, stress positions, such as half squats, environmental manipulation, such as loud music, sensory deprivation through the use of hoods. This order was changed on May 2004.
Geneva Convention rules of wartime forbid torture and provide for humane treatment of enemy captives. These rules are to protect captives, regardless of their home country, from torture.
Forced interrogation is an inferior technique that brings questionable quality of information. The detainee could really not know the needed information and tell the officer what they want to know to stop the beating. Or, if really do know and are fearful for family members in their own country, can tell a lie in order to satisfy both sides.
On February 7, 2002, President Bush signed a memorandum that the Geneva Convention rules did not apply to the conflict between the U.S. And al Qaeda in Afghanistan or elsewhere. The reason for the memorandum was because al Qaeda was not a high contracting party to Geneva.
The Torture Victims Protection Act implements the Convention Against Terror (CAT) into U.S. law. It defines torture as an “act committed by a person acting under the color of law specifically intended to inflict severe physical or mental pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanctions) upon another person within his custody or physical control.” If causing pain is not the main objective, even if the actions cause harm, it would not be torture under law. The memo holds that any U.S. person accused of torture who was acting pursuant to the orders of the commander in chief could defend against the charge by arguing “the right to self-defense,” since the nation was under attack.
The MPs had not received training in detention/internee operations. They had little or no instruction on the Geneva rules for prisoners of war.
There was no formal policy for interrogation aside from the Army Field Manual. This presented incomplete guidance.
Military staffs were asked to escalate the level of interrogations. Policy was changed to allow stronger interrogation techniques, such as dietary manipulation, sleep deprivation up to twenty hours a day, isolation up to thirty days, adjusting temperature, loud music, and stress positions.
Responsibility must start with the understanding that under the best arrangements there will be irresponsibility in administrative actions to a considerable margin. Accountability to another person or body requires some agreement concerning the action or the end result. It is evident that a principal cannot effectively bring about the responsible conduct of public affairs, unless elaborate techniques make explicit what purposes and activities are involved in all the many different phases of public policy (Friedrich). The memorandum on February 7, 2002 stated the Geneva Convention rules did not apply to conflict between the U.S. And al Qaeda because he was not a high contracting party to Geneva. It did not mention anything about the detainees being exempted and the Geneva Convention rules did not make any exceptions. This is clearly a conflict of policy as well as no clear definition of what consists of with al Qaeda.
Assuming causality is a nonexperimental approach that assumes a connection between the availability or level of a program and a condition in the target population (Rosembloom). The definition given in law for torture is not clearly defined. It bases the definition on the objectives and does not include the actual actions and does not define the term severe, or how far one must go to commit torture.
‘Process analysis concerns the way in which a particular policy or program is implemented. The content of the policy and its impact on the ones affected can be modified, elaborated, or even negated during its implementation. The Executive Order where President Bush authorized the interrogation techniques did not clearly define the limits of those interrogation techniques.
Implementation evaluation depends on policy analysis, but it is whether the implementation of the policy is appropriate, rather than whether it has the intended impact. It really depends on the perspective, whether managerial, political, or legal. The forced interrogation techniques brought about a questionable quality of the information they were seeking. The techniques were political and ignored the legal and management of those techniques.
General Conclusions and Recommendations
General conclusion: Terms should be fully defined where there is little doubt or confusion about their meaning and what applies and what does not.
Recommendation: Terms can be defined by committees of at least ten participants to invalidate more meaning and criticality. Using committees can define terms more fully to have better understanding.
General conclusion: Leadership should be more accountable for their decisions in implementing public policy and the training of personnel.
Recommendation: Where policies conflict or violate another, it should be agreed upon by a committee to evaluate the appropriateness.
General conclusion: When a policy has been implemented, any changes to that policy should follow an organizational structure. One administrator should not be allowed to change the policy.
Recommendation: When a change in policy needs to be implemented, the administrator that originally implemented the policy should be on the committee to change it.
Friedrich, C.J. (n.d.). Public Policy and the Nature of Administrative Responsibility. In Stillman, Public Administration-Concepts and Cases (p. 441).
Rosembloom, E.H. (n.d.). Policy Analysis and Implementation Evaluation, 7th Ed. In E.H. Rosembloom, Chapter 8 (pp. 349-369).
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more