There are various types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body fails to produce adequate amounts of insulin. It most often is found in children and young adults which is why it is now referred to as juvenile diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when cells fail to respond to insulin. This subtle distinction makes a great deal of difference in terms of treating the two types of diabetes (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2006). It is also worth noting that type 2 diabetes tends to set in later in life, typically around middle age, though it can occur earlier. Moreover, 90% of all diabetes cases are type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnant women who have never had diabetes but who have high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Nearly one in ten women is at risk of developing gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can return as type 2 diabetes in women later on (Laureate Education, 2012).
The result of diabetes in any case is that the body will be negatively impacted by high glucose levels (blood sugar). Insulin (a pancreatic hormone) is supposed to regulate these glucose levels by reducing the amount of sugar in the blood. It does this by assisting tissues in the absorption of that glucose, which is then used for energy. When a sugary substance is introduced into the body (for example, a milk shake, chocolate bar, or simply any kind of food), the pancreas releases insulin which acts to keep the bloodâ€™s sugar content in check. However, when insulin is either not produced or ineffective in regulating the blood sugar levels, diabetes is the result. Diabetes is a metabolic disease that can do much damage to the bodyâ€™s organs and nervous system. This happens when the glucose produced by the liver as a result of consuming food is unable to be absorbed by tissues; the tissues naturally use the glucose for energy but if they cannot absorb it, they begin to break down fat and protein, which gathers along with the glucose in the blood, harming the body.
One type of drug used to treat type 2 diabetes is Humulin N, which is insulin isophaneâ€”a man made form of insulin. As insulin is responsible for lowering the sugar levels in the bodyâ€™s blood, Humulin N works as an intermediate-acting insulin that can last for nearly an entire dayâ€”between 12 and 18 hours. It is used by way of injection and can be used by patients with gestational diabetes as well (Drugs, 2012).
Dietary considerations that should be made related to treatment are that the diabetes patient should try to consume foods that are low in sugar so that the body is not constantly trying to deal with increased blood sugar levels. Eating all-natural, organic diets or foods such as fish and vegetables can not only help reduce blood sugar levels but can also help to reduce the risk of diabetes and even reverse it in some cases. As diabetes is often linked to obesity and one of the ways to help fight diabetes is to lower a personâ€™s weight, eating an all-natural diet, and cutting sugary foods out of the dietâ€”such as sodas and candy and pre-packaged, manufactured foodsâ€”can all help the person to lose weight and reduce the threat of diabetes as well as other health-related risks that can stem from obesity (Torpy, Burke & Glass, 2009; Hruby & Hu, 2015).
Some short-term risks that are associated with type 2 diabetes are hypoglycemia, which occurs when blood sugar levels fall too low. This can be one side effect of taking Humulin N and a doctor should be consulted if this is the case. The patient should be aware blood sugar levels when taking this drug for the first time and should monitor levels carefully in order to note any other undue side effects, such as itching, skin rash, or a thickening or hollowing of the skin wherever the drug has been injected. These are signs of an allergic reaction to Humulin N. Other effects might include fast heartbeat, problems catching oneâ€™s breath, feeling faint, and swelling of the tongue or throat. Fluid retention might also occur, for example, in the feet or hands, and low potassium may also occur leading to leg cramps, constipation, heart flutters, increased thirst, numbness or muscle weakness. Other short-term impacts of type 2 diabetes can include ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state.
Long-term impacts of type 2 diabetes can include damage to the large blood vessels of the heart, brain and legs also known as macrovascular complications; and damage to the small blood vessels, resulting in eye problems, kidney problems, and feet and nerves issuesâ€”also known as microvascular complications. Maintaining good blood sugar control can help reduce the risk of these effects, and using Humulin N can help to establish that control. So can using the right diet when thinking about what to eat. Exercise can also help in reducing excess weight. In short, the more that one takes care of the body, the better one will be able to combat type 2 diabetes. That is why it is important to consume foods that are organic and low in sugar.
In conclusion, there are several forms of diabetesâ€”type 1, type 2, gestational and juvenile (also known as type 1). Type 1 usually occurs in younger children while type 2 most frequently occurs in older people. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnant women and can impact the mother and the fetus and later return as type 2 diabetes in the mother. Treating type 2 diabetes can be conducted using the drug Humulin N which is injected and is a man made form of insulin. This treatment can also be supported by a diet low in sugar.
Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2006). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: a practical approach (Vol. 536). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Drugs.com. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). The endocrine system and diabetes. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Hruby, A., & Hu, F. B. (2015). The epidemiology of obesity: a big picture. Pharmacoeconomics, 33(7), 673-689.
Torpy, J. M., Burke, A. E., & Glass, R. M. (2009). Coronary heart disease risk factors. JAMA, 302(21), 2388-2388.
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